The main ITS standards and guidelines
Standardisation and security
ISO has long been looking at the issue of securing the supply chain, and has produced ISO 28000: Securing management systems for the supply chain.
This series of standards aims to apply management principles that have been tried and tested in other areas to the field of supply chain security. It is not yet widely implemented in France although one major stakeholder, the port of Le Havre has been accredited since 2009.
The CEN has been repeatedly mandated by the European Commission to initiated work in this field. An initial attempt failed due to the lack of consensus in terms of the objectives to be met, but a new project was launched in 2009, which resulted in the production of a preliminary report which translated into a dual action lead by the CEN/TC 379 Supply chain security:
- Work on standards to harmonise incident reporting in Europe,
- The production of a guide to best practice in supply chain security.
Although this second project has currently only resulted in the production of a guide, in the short term, the European Commission will certainly use it as a basis for launching initiatives to gradually reinforce regulatory requirements in this area.
The internet site dedicated to Transmodel->http://www.transmodel.org/fr/] sets out its methodology, the model content and the new projects using Transmodel.
Automatic emergency call system - eCall
The automatic emergency call system, known as eCall, has been the subject of standardisation work carried out at European level since 2005 by the CEN and ETSI. At French level, the BNEVT CN13 is the structure tasked with monitoring these standardisation projects.
1. CEN standardisation documents
At CEN level, the TC278/WG15 is responsible for drawing up working topics related to eCall. These are:
- EN 15722, eCall minimum set of data
- EN 16062, eCall High Level Application Protocols
- EN 16072, Pan European eCall operating requirements
- EN 16102, Operating requirements for third party support
These different documents aim to standardise various aspects of the eCall system: e.g. the list of data constituting the minimal dataset, the protocols and procedures to guarantee the entire "eCall transaction", or the multiple operational requirements for the different stakeholders involved in this transaction.
2. ETSI standardisation documents
ETSI, through its partner structure 3GPP, works on drawing up technical specifications for communication between eCall stakeholders. These are:
- ETSI TS 122 101, Service aspects, Service principles [v3]
- ETSI TS 124 008, Mobile radio interface Layer 3 specification, Core network protocols [v8]
- ETSI TS 126 267, eCall data transfer, In-band modem solution, General description [v8]
- ETSI TS 126 268, eCall data transfer, In-band modem solution, ANSI-C reference code [v8]
- ETSI TS 126 269, eCall data transfer, In-band modem solution, Conformance testing [v8]
- ETSI TR 126 969, eCall data transfer, In-band modem solution, Characterization report [v8]
Over the last few years cooperative systems - ITS applications based on V2I, I2V or V2V communication - have emerged as a dynamic and promising field.
New structures have recently been created to draw up standards for this area at European and international level. These are CEN/TC278/WG16 (created in March 2009) and ISO/TC204/WG18 (created in September 2009). Similarly, the ETSI, through its technical committee TC ITC, has also been working for a number of years on cooperative systems.
At national level in France the BNEVT standardisation commission CN16 was set up to monitor these different works. Thanks to the work of French stakeholders, some specific study areas have been proposed and adopted at CEN and ISO levels. These include:
- Intelligent transport systems (ITS) - Co-operative systems - Roles and responsibilities in the context of co-operative ITS based on architecture(s) for cooperative systems
- Intelligent transport systems (ITS) - Co-operative systems - Data exchange specification for in-vehicle presentation of external road and traffic related data
- Intelligent transport systems (ITS) - Co-operative systems - Transfer of information from vehicles for infrastructure management, control and guidance applications
- Intelligent transport systems (ITS) - Co-operative systems - Contextual speeds
Two pre-standards known as DATEX (ENV 13106 and ENV 13177) were developed in the 2000s by the CEN in the field of travel and traffic data exchange (centre to centre). These standards were repealed and removed from the European catalogue several years ago.
In 2009-2010, the working group CEN/TC278/WG8 was reactivated and work on the Datex version II is currently underway. Three draft standards (European technical specifications) are close to being finalised and should be available at the end of 2011:
- CEN/TS 16157-1 : Intelligent transport systems - DATEX II data exchange specifications for traffic management and information - Part 1: Context and framework
- CEN/TS 16157-2 : Intelligent transport systems - DATEX II data exchange specifications for traffic management and information - Part 2: Location referencing
- CEN/TS 16157-3 : Intelligent transport systems - DATEX II data exchange specifications for traffic management and information - Part 3: Situation Publication
These documents are intended to become European standards (EN).
Furthermore, other subjects are being discussed within this working group:
- Part 4 "Variable Message Sign Publication" in which France will take an active role
- Part 5 "Measured/elaborated Data Publication" for which France will be the leader / document manager
- Part 6 "Traffic View Publication"
In France, the CN08 of the BNEVT is responsible for monitoring these standards.
Electronic toll collection
Standards for electronic toll collection have primarily been developed by CEN/TC278/WG1 and ISO/TC204/WG5 (often conjointly). Amongst the different subjects addressed, there are three types of standards in the field of electronic toll collection.
Firstly, standards which are independent of any specific type of technology, such as:
- ISO 17573 Electronic fee collection — Systems architecture for vehicle-related tolling
- ISO 17574 Road transport and traffic telematics — Electronic fee collection (EFC) — Guidelines for EFC security protection profiles
- ISO 12855 Electronic fee collection — Information exchange between service provision and toll charging
Other standards specifically concern DSRC technology:
- ISO 14906 Road transport and traffic telematics — Electronic fee collection — Application interface definition for dedicated short-range communication
- ISO/TS 14907-1 Road transport and traffic telematics — Electronic fee collection — Test procedures for user and fixed equipment — Part 1: Description of test procedures
- ISO/TS 14907-2 Road transport and traffic telematics — Electronic fee collection — Test procedures for user and fixed equipment — Part 2: Conformance test for the onboard unit application interface
Finally, other subjects are based on the concept of "autonomous systems":
- ISO/TS 17575-1 Electronic fee collection — Application interface definition for autonomous systems — Part 1: Charging
- ISO/TS 17575-2 Electronic fee collection — Application interface definition for autonomous systems — Part 2: Communication and connection to the lower layers
The CN01 of the BNEVT is the monitoring structure for these different themes.
Emergency call network
There are five French standards in place and these are currently being updated with regard to the network and emergency call telephones. These are:
- NF P 99-250, Road equipment - Emergency Call Network - General features
- NF P 99-251, Road equipment - Emergency Call Network - Appearance and dimensions of emergency call telephones
- NF P 99-252, Road equipment - Emergency Call Network - Maintenance procedures
- XP P 99-253, Road equipment - Emergency Call Network - Technical features of emergency call telephones and control offices
- NF P 99-254, Road equipment - Emergency Call Network - Implementation of emergency call telephones and control offices
A working group attached to the CN13 of the BNEVT is responsible for updating these standards. Publication of the documents is scheduled for the end of 2011.
Standardised exchange solutions between operators in the multimodal transport and supply chain
The development of intermodality and multimodality in the freight transport sector is a key measure of the French round table on the environment (Grenelle), which set the target for increasing non-road transport from 14% to 25% by 2022 and doubling the share of non-road transport for shipments to and from maritime ports by 2015.
A preliminary informal consultation with a selection of professionals and administrative departments responsible for various transport missions, seemed to demonstrate that, in addition to actual transport offers, there are also genuine needs in terms of standardisation in order to encourage modal shift and the complementary use of different modes of transport.
Four key areas emerged at this stage:
- standard tools (indicators);
- physical interfaces for exchanges and changes in modes of transport;
- information technologies to monitor the physical flow of freight and freight documentation;
- technical and technological specifications.
From these discussions, additional meetings held with representatives from the competitiveness cluster Nov@log (Logistics in Seine-Normandy) and the MEEDDM/Directorate-General of Infrastructure, Transport and the Sea (DGITM) and exchanges within the CGTM (multimodal transport standardisation commission), several areas were identified for further exploration and these will be dealt with below, after a brief summary of the current standards in place.
1 - Current standards (CEN and ISO)
Whilst it is clear that standardisation should be deployed at European and international level, it is important to define a strategic plan at national level to clearly identify the priorities that France should be advocating to the supranational standardisation bodies. It is also important to better mobilise national economic stakeholders.
This national strategy is all the more important given that other countries, notably the Netherlands, Germany, the United States and the Republic of Korea, play a highly active role in international standardisation bodies, such as the European Committee for Standardisation (CEN). These countries have developed cross-cutting and sector-based standardisation programmes across the key areas identified above, as part of a move towards modal shift and the complementary use of different modes of transport.
The following technical committees are working on these areas:
International Technical Committees
- ISO/TC8 Ships and Marine Technology, twinned secretariat SAC-China/Din-German, USA chair.
- The following sub-committees are developing standards on intermodality:
- ISO/TC8/SC8 - Ship Design, secretariat KATS - Republic of Korea, Korean chair
- ISO/TC8/SC10 - Computer Applications, secretariat SN - Norway, Norwegian chair
- ISO/TC8/SC11 - Intermodal Inland Navigation and Short Sea Shipping, secretariat AENOR - Spain, Korean chair
- ISO/TC20/SC9 - Aircraft and Space Vehicles - Air cargo and ground equipment, secretariat AFNOR - France, USA chair
- ISO/TC104 - Freight Containers, secretariat ANSI-USA, USA chair.
This committee has three sub-committees:
ISO/TC104/SC1 General Purpose Containers, secretariat AFNOR -France
ISO/TC104/SC2 Specific Purpose Containers, secretariat BSI - UK
ISO/TC104/SC4 Identification and communication, secretariat DIN - Germany
- ISO/TC204 Intelligent Transport, secretariat ANSI-USA, USA chair
The following TC 204 working groups are of particular interest:
ISO/TC204/WG4 Automatic vehicle equipment and identification
ISO/TC204/WG7 General fleet management and commercial freight ISO/TC204/WG9 Integrated transport information, management and control
European Technical Committees
- CEN/TC119 Swap Bodies for Combined Goods Transport, secretariat DIN/Germany, German chair
- This committee has four working groups:
- CEN/TC119/WG1 Swap bodies class A stackable and non-stackable - dimensions, specifications, testing
- CEN/TC119/WG2 Swap bodies class C stackable and non-stackable - dimensions, specifications, testing and common general items
- CEN/TC119/WG3 Swap tanks
- CEN/TC119/WG4 Securing of cargo on road vehicles and in swap bodies
- CEN/TC256 Railway Applications, secretariat DIN/Germany, German chair
- CEN/TC278 Road Transport and Traffic Telematics, secretariat NEN/Netherlands, Dutch chair
- CEN/TC296 Tanks for the Transport of Dangerous Goods, secretariat AFNOR/France, French chair
- CEN/TC320 Transport Logistics and Service, secretariat NEN/Netherlands, Danish chair
The 320 working groups of particular interest include:
- CEN/TC320/WG1 Application of ISO9000/ISO29000 series to the transport and distribution industries
- CEN/TC320/WG2 Freight Transport
- CEN/TC320/WG10 Energy consumption and GHG emissions in relation to transport services.
2 - Work steered by the UN/CEFACT
The development of dematerialisation in international trade and inter-company relations is one of the missions of the UN-CEFACT (United Nations - Centre for Trade Facilitations and Electronic business). This institution’s remit is to propose "simple, transparent and effective procedures for international trade" in close liaison with the work of the World Trade Organization.
Forums are held by the UNECE (UN Economic Commission for Europe) in Geneva with the help of other economic commissions specialised by continent. These events bring together government experts, private sector stakeholders, international and professional organisations.
The professional members of this programme of actions are directly involved in standardisation work, notably:
- by contributing to ISO and CEN work on intelligent transport systems, in particular on standardised data exchange solutions (EDI-XML, fleet and freight identification) for use between stakeholders in the supply chain and to ensure freight transport security;
- by publishing recommendations, via the CEFACT Transport/Logistics committee TBG3 chaired by France (NORMAFRET working group consultant) on the CEFACT recommendation 33, which in particular recommends a single window (customs, health and quality control authorities, certificate of origin) to facilitate and speed up import and export operations.
France has taken on an active role in this field. Indeed, a private initiative ("Place International") was launched in Paris in 2007 to constitute an electronic platform entirely dedicated to international trade procedures (www.france-eci.fr or www.e-export.fr). On 3rd October 2008, the Secretary of State for Foreign Trade launched a mission devoted to the simplification and dematerialisation of international trade procedures, in order to define a detailed strategy in coherence with the steady development of national information systems (customs system DELT@, Cargo Community System in ports and airports).
3 - The European Directive 96/53-CE (25 July 1996)
This sets out the weights and dimensions authorised for road freight vehicles operating within the European Community, for national and/or international traffic. It was introduced in a bid to improve road freight transport conditions across Europe, by defining joint standards for Member States. It encourages the use of vehicles registered in European countries for national and international journeys and fights against unfair competition between Member States.
Currently, several European Union Member States ha ve adopted regulations which allow national freight transport by vehicles whose characteristics exceed the directive, both in terms of dimensions and weight. This creates problems when crossing borders.
Another example concerns Palletwide containers, 2,500 mm wide, which should be compatible with all modes of land and maritime transport able to hold 2 to 3 europallets side by side. The length of 45’ exceeds the limits set out in the 96/53/CE directive. The use of 45’ containers is therefore not covered by the directive and is precarious and restrictive. Only the 45’ chamfered container meets the directive criteria. However, the commission seems to exclude chamfered ILU (Intermodal Loading Units) despite the fact that the chamfered 45’ is widely used in intra-European transport. Since 2005, the 45’ has developed at a rate of around 20% a year, whilst the work of the European Commission has been suspended whilst awaiting the results of the studies in progress.
4 - Key areas for work on standardisation
4.1 Basic tools
What decision-making tools can company managers use to facilitate the development of intermodal solutions and increasingly sustainable transport solutions? What standards should be developed to facilitate the implementation of these tools?
Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions will become key criteria for clients when selecting services. In light of this the method for calculating the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from passenger and freight transport, is currently being harmonised at European level by means of CEN standardisation.
4.2 Organisational specifications and modal switch services
How to improve and optimise modal shift platforms: Technical innovations (in terms of infrastructure and vehicles), organisational innovation, handling methods (sometimes improvised or inappropriate) etc. ?
How can standardisation help to address the problems of the obsolescence and saturation of some intermodal transport hubs?
As far as the means of transport and intermodal interfaces are concerned, the poor performance of intermodal platforms is a cause for concern. Is it possible to introduce quality certification for these intermodal platforms, which could be included in calls for tender and constitute one of the selection criteria? Should measurable, quantified obligations in terms of results be introduced?
Another cause for concern are the constraints resulting from the safety requirements currently in place. How can we create standardised, stable conditions, at the right level to avoid excessive bureaucracy and competition bias both in France and across Europe?
As shared or collaborative logistics (multi-client, multi-product) and the green supply chain develop, what are the needs in terms of standardisation for:
internal organisation and optimising intermodal platforms (rail-road-river, rail-road-air, rail-road-river-sea),
internal organisation and optimising warehousing,
securing modal switch,
reducing loading wait times,
improving fill rates,
reducing the number of empty return trips,
integrating local rail services into the supply chain,
4.3 Traffic management and information flows, intelligent infrastructures, information technologies, monitoring the physical and documentary freight flows
Intermodality is synonymous with effective, low carbon logistics:
That is why it is important to have the right information, to pass it on to the right targets (guidelines, environment etc.) and to think about how to make this information accessible (standards and regulation): Intelligent data, data security etc.
The continuity and fluidity of information flows must be guaranteed along the transport chain for both goods and documents. This need also applies to the information systems used by different stakeholders, notably on the platforms and hubs used for modal switch.
In this way, there is an obligation set out in a European Directive (SafeSeaNet), to ensure the full traceability of dangerous goods between port information systems, a national database (Trafic 2000) and an EC platform. Another obligation in terms of tracking concerns products for human or animal food consumption (directive 178/2002).
The UN-CEFACT have observed an increasing gap between Europe (excluding Scandinavian countries and Germany) and Asia in terms of the dematerialisation of international trade formalities which has lead to businesses losing their competitive edge.
What actions should be initiated in terms of the multimodal integration of ICT which will make possible: The provision of different types of services,
the obtention of complete and reliable real-time information on availability on routes and services,
physical freight tracking,
documentary management, integration with customs systems to save time,
"legal flows" (changes of ownership etc.).
What contribution can standardisation make to designing these information systems whilst guaranteeing confidentiality and facilitating customs inspections?
In order to optimise international traffic flows, stakeholders could take advantage of improved statistical data on the incoming and outgoing flow of finished products crossing borders (sea ports and railway border posts). Can standardisation be used to establish specifications regarding the data these stakeholders require (type, format etc.)?
4.4 - Technical and technological specifications
The issue of the geometric and functional characteristics of containers and transport units has been identified as an obstacle to intermodality in terms of:
- infrastructure gauges (railway, tunnel, river lock, HGV turning circle gauges etc.),
- carrier vehicles (partitioning of river barge holds, coasters, trailer chassis, carrier wagons etc.),
- loading optimisation (number of europallets in a container or swap body),
- handling methods (upward or downward vertical handling, ro-ro),
- regulation (highway code, railway security, police regulations on navigation etc.).
What work can be done to harmonise gauges between modes of transport and the technical regulations for different infrastructures in order to facilitate the passage of a given container (Intermodal Loading Unit) from one mode of transport to another?
How to optimise the transport capacity of rolling highways, notably in terms of the maximum trailer weight and dimensions?
How to harmonise labelling rules (notably for dangerous goods etc.) regardless of the modes used?
How to optimise the "physical" use of current transport networks and modes?
Without underestimating the difficulties, is it possible to establish a French position on the characteristics of an intermodal unit capable of evolving on "inland" modes - river, road, rail and maritime (coasters?: Changes in regulations? Investment to adapt carrier vehicles? Innovative technologies for hydraulic movements in locks in confined waters, handling technologies?